Starting on the note C we will name all the notes of the octave. And though there are only 7 natural notes (ABC's/White Keys) plus the root an octave above (it's the same as the root) there are actually 12 notes in that octave. The white keys are the letters and the black keys are the sharps and flats…
The notes within the octave/chromatic scale are as follows:
C - C#/Db - D - D#/Eb - E - F - F#Gb - G - G#/Ab -A - A#/Bb - B - C
The sharp notes can also be named as flat notes but the choice/the name has to do with the scales, the key signature, and the chords being used…that is far more advanced study....
**** There are 12 notes within the octave****
Keyboard diagram is borrowed from http://pianosecrets.com
To keep it simple just remember the black keys are either sharp or flat and have the same pitch and sound the same to your ear. example: C# and Db have the same sound but would function differently (for the composer or performer).
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